Donfried (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991 29-43. There was a problem with "tax protests" under Nero. The mild adversative dev ). It seems that Paul's focus on "good" and "evil" in 12:17, 21 and the Christian's responsibility to be at peace with all people (12:18) provide sufficient basis for seeing a logical connection to 13:l-7even though no grammatical connection. 101 Porter, "Romans 131. Concerning the punitive role of the state, two further issues must be looked at in the interpretation of this verse. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980 351.
He will someday, according to God's order, turn over the kingdom to the Father and he himself will be subject to God (1 Cor 15:28). We now turn our attention to the referent for the term ejxousivai". 45 Cullmann, Christ and Time, 191. 117 Hendricksen, Romans, 435. James uses the term twice in 4:6 and 5:6. Virtually every serious commentary on the book of Romans has had to wrestle with the integrity of the last two chapters of the work, especially chapter. Grant to every soul that has called upon his magnificent and holy name." Here Clement uses yuchv to refer to the person as a whole, and with pa'sa to refer to "every" personthe context being the delimiting factor in the "every.". Thrall, "The Pauline Use of Suneivdhsi" New Testament Studies (October 1967 123, 125, says that conscience provides "guidance for future moral action and also as being able to assess the actions of others." For similar criticisms against Pierce, see. 92 The plural use of arconte" demonstrates that "the Apostle sic is speaking quite generally." 93 The expression tw ajgaqw ergw refers to any good work or deeds done within the confines of the law enforced and upheld by the state. We will discuss this in a moment, but it is necessary to address first from whence Paul is deriving his idea of governmental authority.
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament 2 Reihe. 69 The books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Daniel make abundant reference to such ideas which form the background to Paul's thinking here in Romans. 170 Cranfield, Romans, 2:670-72. 13, 1-7." KerDogma 8 (1962 151-72. The International Critical Commentary. It simply refers to those who are rulers, in a political sense. 14 Dunn, Romans, 2:758, note. On the other hand, if he does evil, it must needs punish him. Paul goes much further than Peter does in expanding on these ideas. "Furcht, Wem Furcht Gebuhrt.
This does not appear to be in the New Testament and if one holds to a mostly futuristic view of Rev 13, then the fallen angelic authorities will at some future time rebel against Christ by political means. Marcus Borg suggests the possibility that Jewish nationalism had reached violent levels in Rome and for that reason the Jews were expelled 28 and that such a situation forms the background to Romans 13:1-7. 6) to see that the authorities are servants and they, too, have a Master to whom they will give an account. McDonald, "Romans.1-7: A Test Case for New Testament Interpretation NTS 35 (October 1989 543. 1 Cor 11:12 in context). The rule is intrinsic to the state of affairs. 3:18; Titus 2:5; 1 Peter 3:1, 5; and.
He has shown that Paul has not introduced a new argument here by his reference to conscience, since he does not develop it at length. 88 The idea of God meting out judgment through human instruments is a familiar Jewish as well as Hellenistic concept (Isa. The Jews to oppose it was almost like revolters, and was injurious to Caesar" ( War. 5, sees it as an attempt to improve the text. Dibelius later changed his view. "Church and State in the New Testament." Dialog 15 (1976 21-28.
38b (Dallas, TX: Word Books, Publisher, 1988 758, note. The "sword" is used in the NT on many occasions to refer to the authorities' right to take life if it is deemed that one has committed an offense worthy of such punishment (cf. 39 In describing the rule of life for the Essene community Josephus says that a potential initiate "will show fidelity to all men, and especially to those in authority, because no one obtains the government without God's assistance" ( War.140). The term diavkono" is used 44 times in the New Testament and is joined here to qeou' which is placed first in the clause for emphasis. 12 Perhaps they are due to a process of "tidying up the text." See James. In all these instances it refers back to the previous argument not to a single term. Oscar Cullmann represents several scholars since the turn of this century who argue for a double referentthat ejxousivai" refers both to human rulers as well as to angelic authorities controlling (cf.
Translated by John Moore Trout, William Arnot Mather, Louis Hodous, Edward Strong Worcester, William Hoyt Worrell and Rowland Backus Dodge. 77 Another occurrence of the word is found in Hosea 1:6. For ( gavr ) it is God's servant, an avenger to bring wrath on the one who practices evil. Cranfield, Romans: A Shorter Commentary (Grand Rapids: William. This is pointed out in the exegesis of verse. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980 353; Everett. In Leviticus 23:29-30 the Hebrew text has vp#n lk* which the LXX translates as pa'sa yuchv. In Wisdom of Solomon 6:5 the text reads "because severe judgment falls on those in high places " where kings and rulers (cf. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1973 160; Fitzmyer, Romans, 667; Sanday and Headlam, Romans, 366, 67; John Zeisler, Paul's Letter to the Romans, TPI New Testament Commentaries (Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1989. Therefore, the term mavcairan (i.
When a government fulfills its functions of maintaining peace, and generally protects the welfare of its people, both against those from within and without who would threaten these things, then it is carrying out the end to which it was appointed. But, when it crosses these boundaries and becomes an instrument for evil, violating the explicit will of God as outlined in Scripture, then it must not be followed (i.e. But Paul goes much further than Peter does. Luke 12:11 and the reference to the taV" ajrcaV" kaiV taV" ejxousiva" which probably refers to Roman authorities). Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955. Strobel, "Zum Verstndnis vom Rm, 13 ZNW 47 (1956 67-93, at this point.
O'Neill, Romans, 211, follows Rudolph Bultmann, Der Stil der paulinischen Predigt und die kynisch-stoische Diatribe (Gttingen, 1910 15ff, and argues for the diatribe style here. 1-7: An Interpolation NTS 11 (1965 365-74. 10 Other commentators doubt Pauline authorship due to the lack of a Christological foundation in the passage. 141 The example from the Didache 12:2 is important for it has the same construction as Romans 13:5, namely, ajnagkhv plus the infinitive. This is important when trying to assess the relative weight to be placed upon differences in these texts. Both writers use the term "all" ( pavnta" in Paul and pavsin in Peter) as the object of the first verb of the commands. "Conscience." In Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. 103 Hendricksen, while recognizing this possibility, understands the idea of epainon to be the government forming "a favorable opinion of that well-behaved person, and will, whether only in "its heart" or even by means of an openly expressed commendation.
"Romans 13 (Actually Romans 12:14-13:8) Reexamined." TSF Bulletin 10 (1987 7-10. A few other things must be said about submission to governmental authorities. 98 See Morris, Romans, 463. In this text Paul is stating that the Lord is an "avenger" ( ekdiko" ) against those who wrong their brothers in matters of sexual purity, that is, the Lord is the one who will punish those who commit this evil. 37 Having shown that the phrase is a Semitism, such an emphasis must not predominate though, for it is used as the subject of a predominantly Hellenistic term, namely, uJpotavssw. So difficult as to be virtually impossible) and awkward is demonstrated by the presence of ajnavgkh in Matthew 18:7 and Hebrews 9:16,.
86 The expression krivma lhvmyontai appears to be a Semitic locution: "to receive judgment." See Matt 12:40 Luke 20:47; James 3:1;. But inherent in the term in Romans 13 is the idea of God's order and structuring (i.e. He cites several instances from Greco-Roman and Pauline literature where the term is used to refer to a qualitative difference. The fact that Paul is referring to moral behavior that falls within the limits set out in the laws of the land, does not mean that he is speaking solely of political behavior; see Cranfield, Romans, 664,. 13:7 Give back to all people what is owed; taxes to whom taxes are due; revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due and honor to whom honor is due. He says that in 1 Cor 2:8, "Paul manifestly means both the invisible princes of the world who are often mentioned as such, and their actual human instruments, Herod and Pilate." 45 He argues that 1 Cor 6:3 is unintelligible. They both render to Caesar and his governors the highest possible human court.